Flamenco meets graffiti in Barcelona

An exhilarating graffiti painting of legendary flamenco dancer Carmen Amaya by artists BTOY and URIGINAL shows the rawness and elegance that often go together in flamenco.

Blogspot Jesus Cuenca
Carmen Amaya, by BTOY and URIGINAL, graffiti in C/Escoles Barcelona, 2013. Photo: Jesús Cuenca 

© Hannet Engel. This is an adaptation of an article published in Mundo Flamenco nr.40, 2017.

BTOY and URIGINAL are graffiti names for the street artists who made flamenco dancer Carmen Amaya (1918*–1963) dance again in the streets of her own hometown Barcelona. Their large scale mural adorns the streets of Barcelona since 2013, demonstrating that flamenco can be expressed in all sorts of ways. In vibrant colours and on an impressive scale both artists painted a portrait of Carmen in their own style (BTOY on the left and URIGINAL on the right) based on photographs of Carmen from the sixties.

Celebrating Carmen Amaya
Carmen Amaya ‘Queen of the Gipsies’ changed flamenco dancing forever by turning flamenco’s percussive footwork into an olympic effort of technicality and speed. Her glamourous, exotic and fierce appearance made a unique combination that allowed her to star in Hollywood movies and introduce flamenco to a broad and international audience.

Calle Escoles in Barcelona is the scene of the crime. That is to say, this graffiti mural was actually legal and was applied on an outside wall as part of the street art project ‘Openwalls Showcase’ in 2013. That year was declared ‘Carmen Amaya year’ because it had been fifty years since her death in 1963. BTOY and URIGINAL did not need guitars or singing to bring Carmen Amaya back to life, but in stead used the instruments of the street artist: spray paint and brushes.

BTOY and URIGINAL explain in an interview with Kaliú Flamenco why they chose to depict Carmen Amaya. Carmen was born in the suburbs of Somorrostro in Barcelona, almost a 100 years ago. And according to these street artists she hasn’t been appreciated and commemorated enough in Barcelona.

Flamenco on drugs
URIGINAL based the portrait of Carmen Amaya on a photograph of her by Manel Gausa for the magazine Distinción in 1959 that was made during a performance in the Palau de la Música in Barcelona.

Carmen Amaya BTOY URIGINAL 2013 Pixabay
Carmen Amaya by Uriginal, graffiti on wall, Barcelona 2013. Photo: Creative Commons CC0 via Pixabay.
Carmen Amaya. Photo: Manel Gausa, 1959. (Copyright not found. Source: historiasdeflamenco.com)

URIGINAL (Uri Martinez) has depicted other flamenco icons besides Carmen Amaya as well, such as guitar player Paco de Lucía and singer Camarón de la Isla. URIGINAL is from Barcelona, which is a city with a flamenco tradition, but not one as rich as the flamenco history of Southern Spain. So where did URIGINAL get his inspiration from?

FlamencoArtworks© asked URIGINAL about his ties with flamenco and the reason for portraying these flamenco artists.

These artists formed a paradigm that you just can’t ignore. I was probably influenced by my family. They are from Extremadura and I have some cousins living in Andalusia [- which are both provinces of Spain with a rich flamenco tradition]. Flamenco is something that you are born with and that surrounds you without choosing it. 

Flamenco singer Chico Ocaña often visits me in my studio [- Chico is known as lead singer of experimental flamenco band Mártires del Compás]. And so does singer and guitarist José Amaya, who is Carmen Amaya’s second cousin. He recorded a song with Paco de Lucía called Chica Bonita in 1977. In my studio I listen to Lole y Manuel a lot, but I also like psychedelic trance. As long as it tears me up and gets under my skin.

How did Uriginal get this far as a street artist?

URIGINAL [jokingly]:
Along the years… and with drugs.

So it seems that ’psychedelic flamenco’ would be a fitting description of URIGINAL’s artistic style of vibrant colours and hypnotising geometrical patterns in which he painted dancer Carmen Amaya. He shows us the glamorous side of Carmen’s life as a dancing star with her hands crossed in an elegant flamenco pose.

Carmen Amaya unstoppable
Barcelona-based street artist Btoy (Andrea Michaelsson) explains in an interview with Artsmania that she uses iconic photographs of famous women, mostly hollywood actresses from silent films. By depicting them she pays tribute to these women who did away with stereotypes, such as Katharine Hepburn or flappers like Clara Bow.

But BTOY also shows women who were victims of their own characters and of show business. I personally think Carmen Amaya fits both descriptions, with URIGINAL depicting the glamorous side of Carmen Amaya as an artist and BTOY showing the raw side of her life.

BTOY  has blown up a different kind of photograph than that of URIGINAL for this graffiti mural, showing Carmen with her hair down and a contemplating gaze off into the distance. BTOY used a photo by photographer Colita, who shot pictures of Carmen during her last movie Los Tarantos in 1962.

pixabay-carmen amaya BTOY URIGINAL
Carmen Amaya by BTOY, graffiti Barcelona 2013. Photo: Creative Commons CC0 via Pixabay.
Carmen Amaya. Photo: Colita, 1962. Copyright not found. Embedded from historiasdeflamenco.com

In the photo by Colita Carmen already looks worn out and it turned out she would die the following year from failure of the kidneys. This was probably due to the physical exertion that her style of dancing demanded of her. Although Carmen Amaya herself liked to believe that it was the other way around. She had to keep on dancing to stay healthy and said: “If I have to stop dancing, it is better that I die.”  (cited in: Francisco Hidalgo, 1995)


Flamenco and graffiti: legal or underground?

Carmen Amaya by Btoy and Uriginal,graffiti Barcelona 2013. Photo: Fernando Alcalá Losa
Carmen Amaya,  BTOY and URIGINAL, Barcelona 2013. Published with permission of the photographer. Photo ©: Fernando Alcalá Losa.

The worlds of flamenco and street art are very much comparable. In Spain street art is mostly practised illegally. Like the gipsies who have always practised their flamenco secretly during times of repression. And under general Franco’s regime, flamenco was a way of inconspicuous resistance against authorities.

At the same time forms of flamenco that were acknowledged as a performing art have always existed alongside the illegal flamenco activities. As nowadays there are accepted forms of graffiti, like this artwork of Carmen Amaya by BTOY and URIGINAL.

So if flamenco and graffiti are comparable and on top of that BTOY and URIGINAL have depicted Carmen Amaya in a grand, intense yet elegant way, just as I would describe a great flamenco performer….then I can only conclude that this street art is very flamenco.



*Carmen Amaya’s date of birth is still debated. Authors of the latest biography on Carmen suggest it was in 1917 or 1918. See: Montse Madridejos and David Pérez Merinero (2013). Carmen Amaya. Barcelona: Edicions Bellaterra

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  • José Luis Navarro García, Historia del Baile Flamenco Volumen II, 2008-09
  • Francisco Hidalgo Gómez, Carmen Amaya: La biografía, Barcelona 1995, edition Google books 2014

2 Comments Add yours

  1. Frederik Ruijter says:

    Wow! En kijken sindsdien alle flamenco danseressen zo getroubeerd en geïrriteerd? 😉

    Liked by 1 person

    1. Hannet Engel says:

      Haha, ja precies, ik denk wel dat Carmen een trend heeft gezet.


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